Kerala Geography for Kerala PSC: Highlands

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Kerala PSC Exams

Kerala Geography for Kerala PSC: Highlands

The Eastern Highlands covers 48 per cent of the total land area of Kerala. It slopes down from Western Ghat. Highlands are mostly covered by dense forests. Major plantations cultivated in Highlands are tea, coffee, and rubber.

During the Sangham period, this region was known as Kurnji and Mullai. The inhabitants of Kurinji were known as Vettuvar. Inhabitants of Mullai were known as Ayar or Idayar. Wayanad plateau, Anamalai, Nelliampathi, Periyar plateau, Agasthya hills Thiruvananthapuram are part of the Highlands. Anamudi is the highest point in the highlands. Agasthyakudam is the southernmost peak in the Western Ghats is also a part of Western Ghats.

Shola forests are found on the western slopes of eastern highlands. The foothills of the Western Ghats comprise the rocky area from 200 to 600m.above MSL. It is a transitional zone between the high -ranges and midland. Evidence suggest that the Western Ghats represents the edge of an upraised and disrupted continental block during early Miocene. 

Palakkad Gap

The southern part of the Western Ghats is separated from the main Sahyadri range by Pal ghat Gap [Palakkad Gap] The width of Palakkad Gap 40 Km. Kerala and Tamil Nadu were largely connected by road and railway line through this gap. It is through this gap that moist-bearing clouds of the south-west monsoon can penetrate some distance inland, bringing rain to Mysore region.


Anamudi (2,695 m) is the highest peak in the whole of southern India. Anamudi is the highest peak in:

  • Western Ghats
  • Kerala
  • Indian subcontinent
  • Peninsular India
  • South India
  • Height peak in India Closest to equator Anamudi

It is Situated in Munnar Panchayat of Devikulam Taluk of Idukki District of Kerala State. It is located inside Eravikulam National Park. Three ranges radiate in different directions from Anaimudi are:

  • Anaimalai to the north,
  • Palani to the north-east
  • Cardamom Hills or the Ealaimalai to the south.

Sky Islands

“Sky islands” are the tops of tall mountains that become environmentally isolated from each other even if they are close together, geographically speaking. The Western Ghats are a mountain chain in southwest India home to spectacular and unique sky islands. The peaks of the Western Ghats, ranging between 3,000 and 8,500 feet above sea level, host an almost unbelievable array of microclimates, looking like “patches of forests floating in a sea of grasslands.

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