International Organisation for Kerala PSC: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

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International Organisation for Kerala PSC: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation. It was created in 2001. It is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation, that is aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in these regions. Russian and Chinese are the official languages of SCO. The Headquarter of SCO is at Beijing, China. 

The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the Supreme Decision Making Body of SCO. The  Permanent Bodies of SCO are:  

  • SCO Secretariat – Beijing
  • Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) – Tashkent

SCO Charter

The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, but it was entered into force in 2003. SCO Charter is a statutory document that outlines its structure, core activities, goals and principles. 


Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five, prior to the creation of SCO in 2001. Shanghai Five was formed in 1996. It emerged from a series of talks that the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.

When Uzbekistan was added to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO. India and Pakistan became members of SCO in 2017.

The members of SCO are: 

  1. Kazakhstan
  2. China
  3. Kyrgyzstan
  4. Russia
  5. Tajikistan
  6. Uzbekistan
  7. India
  8. Pakistan

The Observer states are: 

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Belarus
  3. Iran
  4. Mongolia

The Dialogue Partners are:

  1. Azerbaijan
  2. Armenia
  3. Cambodia
  4. Nepal
  5. Turkey
  6. Sri Lanka

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